didispbacco.tk/1660.php Freud had described a related phenomenon: plumb individual pathology deeply enough and you emerge in an underground realm of universal mythology. In the more recent fiction of a pacified Europe, a smooth EU-niversality prevails in place of the old strife within and between countries. Handke, such a late modernist that the party appears to have ended, is an Austrian who lives in Paris; but can you regularly identify the city or country his peripatetic characters are passing through, metafictional preoccupations in train?
Typically the narrator is a monologist, resembling the author, who tells of personal turmoil amid social stasis. He recognizes himself, with snobbish self-approbation, as a part of a stable polyglot pan-European elite; most other inhabitants of his country, as of the neighboring ones, are unthreatening idiots who turn on the TV after returning from work. The younger ones take drugs and dance to club music on weekends; the older ones go on package tours before dying of cancer. Nietzschean last men and women , they can be roused neither to the self-promotion nor to the gun violence that lend spice to American life.
Their tribune is Michel Houellebecq. Other big-name European novelists write books about personal relationships and international culture, and not much in between. Resigned to terminal minorness, this is a European novel written by, about, and for literary people who attain a critical mass only at the Frankfurt Book Fair, and then without taking the opportunity to riot against the European Central Bank.
Many suicides occur in its pages. The portion of southern writing that became World Literature required champions in the publishing houses of northern capitals. Their international reception depended on a cosmopolite audience — political, curious, appalled by the war in Vietnam — that emerged with the end of colonialism and seems to have lasted through the Central American dirty wars of the s. The social situation of the southern writer remained what it had ceased to be in the rich countries not long after World War II: to one side of the writer stood a large, increasingly educated population of working people whose ongoing tolerance of social injustice could not be taken for granted, and to the other side a government run on behalf of an owning class too insecure and divided to shrug at the opinions of national writers.
The class composition of many postcolonial countries resembled that of European countries three-quarters of a century before: a ruling class uneasily split between rural landlords and a thin stratum of urban bourgeoisie, a working class that still consisted more of peasants than city-dwelling wage-seekers. The combination of restive masses and a hostile or approving but not indifferent bourgeoisie gave the work of southern writers a social charge no longer available to literature in the stabilized rich countries.
The valence of this charge naturally depended on the book in question. Naipaul, a Trinidadian of Indian descent writing from southern England, the leader of a left-wing uprising on a Caribbean island was a half-educated black rapist. Either way, these and other southern novels of their time were buoyed by revolutionary ferment. Pakistan was served up for similar treatment in his next novel, Shame In The Jaguar Smile , a still left-wing Rushdie went to Nicaragua to check out the Sandinistas, about whom he offered guarded praise.
Fortuitously, The Satanic Verses was published the year before the Warsaw Pact unraveled: now a world split by the cold war could become a unified globe. Khomeini had thus inadvertently sanctified the global novel in English. The novel itself was deeply impressive, deploying the metafictional techniques of postmodernism to address the major contemporary theme of migration, later prompting as much theory as it seemed to be responding to.
But a post—cold war, globalized World Literature was not a more radical or politicized one. Following The Satanic Verses , the association of postcolonial writing with anti-imperialism was dead. Still more belong to a manifest world-system. Their publishers are multinational corporations; the universities they teach at, or where their work may be taught, train a global elite; and much of their audience, actual or hoped-for, reads English, though huge markets for books also exist in Mandarin, Spanish, and French.
In France itself and in smaller markets, half the fiction on offer may be in translation though in Europe two out of three translated novels are from English. Marx and Engels wrote, however, when literature was on the march, at a time of fast-growing readerships in Europe and America and the beginnings of universal public education. The literate portion of the population, and the quantity of modern literature it consumed in addition to its diet of journalism, scripture, and delectable trash , would go on swelling for another years or so.
Even today, in a few countries, including enormous India, the average person probably reads more rather than less each year, and maybe even reads better stuff. Elsewhere, writers of serious or half-serious fiction and essays, never mind poetry or plays, face national audiences apparently shrinking in relative or absolute terms. Literature never quite shed its elite connotations; today it is a more professionalized and elite activity than it was a generation or two ago.
One temptation is for writers to hope that enough thin-sliced national audiences, stacked together, might be world enough to support them. Through globalization, the US and China can become equally unequal! The question is what we make of it. It has its own economy, consisting of international publishing networks, scouts, and book fairs.
It has its prizes: the Nobel, of course, but more powerful and snazzier is the Man Booker, and the Man Booker International. Its political arm is PEN. And it has a social calendar full of literary festivals, which bring global elites into contact with the glittering stars of World Lit. What happens at these festivals? No debate; no yelling; some drinking; lots of signing of books. They represent the state of World Literature at the present time. Everywhere, a political writer has acquired a quieter global successor. Insurrectionary Gordimer has given way to the sedulously horrified Coetzee; ranting Grass to mourning and deceased Sebald; angry Rushdie to shitty Rushdie.
Of course there was something wrong with the old militancy, too. World Literature was not often called that when there were still three worlds: first capitalist , second Soviet-style socialist , and third could go either way. Since the cold war, what it has gained in circumspection it has lost in direction. In spite of the increasing worldliness of writers, the contemporary world often fails to impress itself on World Lit with much force.
Michael Ondaatje, a Sri Lankan—born Canadian of Dutch ancestry and hero to many world litterateurs, has been exemplary in the worst way, with his sinuous capacity to suggest a political mind without betraying a real one. The irony of his name was not lost on him. An older global novel was animated by an attempt to win for fiction not only a new language and form but a role in securing an entire realm of freedom.
But the political liberation failed, or was botched or betrayed; to write as if third-worldism were still a source of promise would be an especially tedious kind of cant. In the absence of political prospects, writers have produced backward-glancing narratives of trauma like the atom bomb going off at the end of The English Patient. Past horrors, unlike contemporary ones, also tend to be events liberal readers agree about. But they displace the contemporary world, locating politics always elsewhere , in some distant geography and irrecoverable past.
Present day confusions and controversies are neglected or sentimentalized. The key institution in the creation of World Literature has not been the literary festival, or even the commercial publishing house, but the university. Wells also imagined forms of future entertainment. In When the Sleeper Wakes , the protagonist rouses from two centuries of slumber to a dystopian London in which citizens use wondrous forms of technology like the audio book, airplane and television—yet suffer systematic oppression and social injustice.
Visitors to The Island of Dr. Moreau were confronted with a menagerie of bizarre creatures including Leopard-Man and Fox-Bear Witch, created by the titular madman doctor in human-animal hybrid experiments that may presage the age of genetic engineering. Though Moreau created his Frankenbeasts through more crude techniques, like surgical transplants and blood transfusions, the theme of humans playing God by tinkering with nature has become a reality. Scientists are working towards the day when a nimal organs could serve as long-term transplants for human patients , though today human immune systems still ultimately reject such efforts.
And controversial experiments known as chimera studies create human-animal hybrids by adding human stem cells to animal embryos. Notably, the human-animal hybrids Moreau creates eventually do the doctor in, and that ending echoes another common Wells theme. Martians in The War of the Worlds unleash what Wells called a Heat-Ray, a super weapon capable of incinerating helpless humans with a noiseless flash of light.
It would be more than six decades before Theodore Maiman fired up the first operational laser at California's Hughes Research Laboratory on May 16, , but military thinkers had been hoping to weaponize the conceptual laser even before it was even proven practical. Typically, Wells was more interested in what the effects of his future ideas might be, rather than working out the technical details, James stresses.
Writing against the odds - the South's cultural and literary struggle against progress and modernity [Julia Merkel] on ubynasipujag.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying. Writing against the odds - the South's cultural and literary struggle against progress and modernity - Julia Merkel - Thesis (M.A.) - American Studies - Literature.
So in The Time Machine , if you think of time as the fourth dimension, what if you could travel in time as freely as in the other three? Or, in The First Men in the Moon , what if you could make a material [Wells called it Cavorite] as impervious to gravity as other materials are impervious to heat? Today's leading science fiction authors still use this technique while at work shaping the future of tomorrow. Wells reveled in the potential benefits of technology but also feared their dark side.
Wells recognized the world-changing destructive power that might be harnessed by splitting the atom. The atomic bombs he introduces in The World Set Free fuel a war so devastating that its survivors are moved to create a unified world government to avoid future conflicts. Wells's bombs differed from those actually developed by scientists with the Manhattan Project. They exploded continually, for days, weeks or months depending upon their size, as the elements in them furiously radiated energy during their degeneration and in the process created mini-volcanoes of death and destruction.
Wells rejected the idea that the future is unknowable, writes esteemed science fiction writer James Gunn , who also helped to pioneer university study of science fiction. But Wells did have other big ideas that haven't come to fruition, though of course there's always the chance that his vision extended farther into the future than our own time. As of this writing we've not been invaded by Martians. Human invisibility also remains elusive—though science is making progress in that direction. The time machine, an invention introduced in a novella, hasn't been worked out either.
Perhaps the biggest disappointment to Wells was the failure of his idealized political vision, a world government, which he described in A Modern Utopia Wells, who died in , lived long enough to learn that this imagined future wasn't likely to ever come true, so he took a very active role in fostering international cooperation wherever he could. I believe it was Wells writing letters to The Times that started the process that eventually led to the United Nations declaration of world rights in Courtemanche adds that Wells's idea of world government, while never reaching his Utopian ideal, actually did come to fruition in at least some small ways.
On the other hand, however, there is no clear evidence that private monopolies are more effective and less corrupt than the public ones and that privatization, especially long-lasting, gradual and non-transparent one so-called gradualism , reduces positive developmental and social effects, including the reduction of corruption [ 32 ]. Yet market deregulation, legal and judicial reform and transparent management of public procurement would significantly reduce corruption in many developing countries as well as in transition countries , at which point the government should play an important role in the shaping of the anti-corruption policy.
There should be a strong strengthening of the public procurement institution. The law is admittedly strict about the public procurement, but one of the main reasons for public procurement problems is the lack of a skilled workforce, and public procurement is thus still the breeding ground of corruption.
They are part of the game and everyone does it. Bridge satirized the conventional suburban values espoused by its titular character, and gently pulls aside the veil of propriety to reveal her own closely-held dissatisfaction and aimlessness. The ramifications of this work will not be entirely clear until an enterprising scholar incorporates those studies into a new synthesis, but this essay will offer a preliminary evaluation. Whatever its ultimate fate in the classroom and public discourse, recent scholarship on the coming of the Civil War reveals an impatience with old interpretive categories, an eagerness to challenge the basic parameters that have long guided scholarly thinking on the topic, and a healthy skepticism of narratives that explain the war with comforting, simplistic formulae. Public statements by preeminent historians reaffirmed that slavery's centrality had been proven beyond a reasonable doubt.
Poverty destroys all ethical and moral values. One of the important aspects of the damage to the global economy is also the failure to respect copyright and intellectual property. The more corrupt countries are also inclined to lower respect for the aforementioned, and the economic damage amounts to billions of dollars.
There are also theories that corruption can act as the lubricant of the economic wheel and at least in some cases has a positive impact on the economic growth. The empirical analysis done by Dreher and Gassebner [ 34 ] on a sample of 43 countries between and shows that corruption is even useful, but with some reservations. In particular, they investigated the short-term effects of corruption and found, for example, that in countries where corruption is widespread, more new entrepreneurs enter the market corruption in the public sector is expected to promote private entrepreneurial activity.
They are, however, not necessarily to succeed, as there is a high likelihood that they will go bankrupt due to the rigid regulations that block the activity and because of which bribes are needed. They do acknowledge, on the other hand, that most authors who have been doing research for a longer period of time admit the harmfulness of corruption both for society and the economy. Something similar show the data for some Asian countries, where, unlike their findings short-term benefit , the high degree of corruption coincides with the long-term economic growth. Svendson [ 10 ] also notes that, in light of the theoretical literature and various research studies, notwithstanding that these show the negative impact of corruption on the economic growth, but this cannot be said for sure, since there are difficulties in measuring corruption, and at the same time, the question arises whether the econometric models that were made are good enough to capture all the important variables.
He also states that corruption appears in many forms and that there is no reason to assume that all types of corruption are equally harmful to the economic growth. Recent empirical researches also attest to that; while many countries have suffered, as a characteristic consequence of corruption, the decline in economic growth, other countries have had economic growth in some cases a very positive one despite corruption.
The latter is also to be expected, since corruption has many manifestations and it would be surprising if all types of corrupt practices had the same effect on economic performance. Analyses show that one of the reasons for this is the extent to which the perpetrators of corrupt practices—in this case the bureaucrats—coordinate their behavior. In the presence of such a network, the collective bureaucracy reduces the total value of the bribe, which results in lower bribe payments and higher innovation, and the economic growth is consequently higher in the latter case than in the former case.
The interesting question is not so much why is the degree of corruption in poor countries higher than in the rich ones, but rather why the nature of corruption differs between countries. The extent to which corruption is organized is just one aspect of this, but there are other aspects. For example, it is common practice in some countries to pay ex post as a share of profit, for example instead of ex ante in advance, as a bribe to officials or politicians, so it is assumed that the effects on the economy will be different.
The precise reason why corruption should take on one form and not the other is an important issue which has been largely ignored and which could have to do with cultural, social and political reasons, as well as economic circumstances [ 35 ]. In the fight against corruption, a remarkable role was also played by the debt crisis.
The crisis is supposed to dry up monetary resources and thus reduce the chances of corruption. Also, the crisis has changed the perception of the society, and bad business practices, which were acceptable before the crisis, are acceptable no longer.
However, the fight against corruption is often similar to the fight against windmills. The case of India shows how corruption is changing, getting new dimensions, not only in scope, but also in methods. Just as the population in India is growing, so is corruption, and there are always new ways how to cheat both the state and the society. The perception of corruption is increasing year after year. Despite all the anti-corruption moves and anti-corruption initiatives, people do not hesitate to offer or accept a bribe.
The bribers are becoming innovative, they adapt to the situation and the innovation of companies in paying bribes and hiding them is also visible. However, just as elsewhere in the world, the negative effects of corruption are the same; it reduces foreign direct and domestic investments, increases inequality and poverty, raises the number of freeloaders renters, free-riders in the economy, distorts and exploits public investments and reduces public revenues. Corruption is, in fact, a multidirectional process. On one hand, the provider benefits, on the other the recipient, and both are aware of the deed that remains hidden.
The third link in the chain is everyone else, the victims. Although not every act of corruption is yet a criminal offense, it is, however, unethical and detrimental to the economic and political development of a society. Usually, there are persons involved with political, economic and decision-making power, and as the philosopher Karl Popper wrote in his book, The Open Society and its Enemies , that the greatest problem is not the question of who should give orders, but how to control the one who gives them.
How to organize the political and social institutions in order to prevent the weak and incompetent rulers from doing too much harm? However, as there is no general and unmistakable way of preventing the tyranny or corruptions of the heavyweights, the price of freedom is eternal alertness [ 37 ].
Greediness, ambition, rapacity and immorality have been known to the human society ever since the emergence of civilization and use every tool available to them: kinship, common past, school contacts, common interests, friendship and, of course, political as well as religious ties. We have established a basic model of three factors risk, benefit and consciousness that was created on the basis of the merger of several known, scientifically proven factors that cause or reduce corruption or affect its level in the individual country.
According to this degree of corruption, we have identified five groups, classified the countries and analyzed their common characteristics. The findings were as follows:. Corruption is related to the level of education the higher the average level of education, the lower the level of corruption.
Corruption is strongly linked to the geographical location. Corruption is linked to freedom in the country personal freedom, freedom of speech, economic freedom, etc. Many researchers are still involved in corruption. The findings show that there is a link between corruption and its negative effects, but from most of the studies it is not possible to determine what the cause is and what the consequence.
Whether is the level of corruption lower due to high GDP, or is it vice versa, cannot be directly identified, since the corruption depends on economic indicators, while at the same time affecting them [ 39 ]. It is also very difficult to claim that the average low level of education is due to corruption or, conversely, that corruption is a result of low education.
Similarly goes for the rule of law and in efficiency of public administration. This interdependence will surely continue to be the subject of numerous researches in the future, for the only way to be successful in the fight against corruption is if we know the causes and begin to eliminate them. Nevertheless, there remains something that needs to be emphasized. Almost all of the studies ignore the fact that the top of the most corrupt countries consists of countries with one of the various forms of armed conflict civil war, intertribal conflicts, inter-religious wars or some other form of aggression , which means that peace in the country is a prerequisite for a successful fight against corruption.
The least corrupt countries are countries that have a lasting peace on their territory most since the Second World War or even longer , which is confirmed by the above fact. Peace is therefore one of the prerequisites for a successful fight against corruption.
The answer to the question of how to deal with corruption is not unambiguous; some countries have achieved great success in dealing with it in a relatively short time Singapore, Estonia and Georgia and some have been struggling for a long time the most famous example is Italy. The first condition is in any case to ensure freedom personal freedom, economic freedom, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, etc. However, at this point, it is not about introducing the Western type democracy, as our culture knows it, for it has often proven that, especially with the help of the army, more harm than benefit was caused.
It is necessary to start using good practices of countries that are similar to each other religion, habits, tradition, ethics and morality and that have common history. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Vito Bobek. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books.
Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Corruption is a constant in the society and occurs in all civilizations; however, it has only been in the past 20 years that this phenomenon has begun being seriously explored. Keywords corruption influence economy economic growth rule of law. In , Kaufmann and Gray [ 1 ] found that: Bribery is widespread, especially in the developing and transition countries; there are, however, significant differences between and within regions.
Bribery increases transaction costs and creates insecurity in the economy. Corruption destroys the legitimacy of the state. Causes of corruption Although corruption differs from country to country, it is possible to identify some of the key common driving forces that generate it. What is common to all countries, which are among the most corrupt, has been identified by Svensson [ 10 ]; all of them are developing countries or countries in transition, with rare exceptions, low-income countries, most countries have a closed economy, the influence of religion is visible Protestant countries have far the lowest level of corruption , low media freedom and a relatively low level of education.
Political and economic environment The phenomenon of corruption is strongly influenced by the political and economic environment. Such efficiency is determined by the quality of the regulations and permits, since ineffective and unclear regulations help to increase the level of corruption in at least two different ways: The artificially created monopoly of power that enables civil servants to obtain bribes is based on their superior position and embedded in the system.
Professional ethics and legislation Lack of professional ethics and deficient laws regulating corruption as a criminal offense, and the prosecution and sanctioning of it are also an important cause for the emergence and spread of corruption.
Habits, customs, tradition and demography Different countries have different attitudes to corruption. The impact of corruption on the economy In , Tanzi and Davoodi [ 2 ] conducted a systematic study of the impact of corruption on public finances. Several important findings came to light: Corruption increases the volume of public investments at the expense of private investments , as there are many options that allow for public expenditure manipulation and are carried out by high-level officials so as to get bribes which means that more general government expenditures or a large budget offer more opportunities for corruption.