Dua: , ff. As mentioned above, the Indian constitution contains also articles on the language issue. Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.
Kulturwissenschaften - Sonstiges. Geschichte - Didaktik. Amerikanistik - Literatur. Englisch - Landeskunde. Registrieren oder einloggen. Optional: Anmelde-Code. Verbinden mit Facebook. Fordern Sie ein neues Passwort per Email an. Arbeiten hochladen. Im eBook lesen. In den Warenkorb. Table of Content 1. Introduction 2. Examples 4. Conclusion References 1. Introduction India is the second largest country in the world, concerning the number of inhabitants. Die Karikatur im Geschichtsunterricht. Bilingual education in America. Illusion or reality?
Conversation Analysis: Interruption by male or female speakers in a Germany - Southeast Asia. Thoughts and perceptions of a german international law and politics R2P in East and Southeast Asia. Encountering India. Eine interkulturelle Begegnung mit Indien. Is English language an obstacle for research scholars in India? Bilder im Geschichtsunterricht. Immigration Policy in the USA. An ana Beratung in der Schule.
The counting of interruptions — which means that one speaker starts to speak while the other one has not finished his remarks yet — shows that the male speaker, Darryl, interrupts the female speaker more often than the other way round, as it can be seen in diagram The left line of the chart shows 39 interruptions performed by Darryl. In contrast, Pamela interrupts Darryl 29 times, as it becomes clear from the right line. This point will be examined in detail in the second part of the analysis, the qualitative look at the conversation.
But in the quantitative analysis, we also have to distinguish between different types of interruptions. Some are spontaneous emotional reactions on what was just said or affirmations, repetitions and questions performed due to misunderstanding or in order to support what the other speaker has just said. At this point it is very hard to draw the line between overlaps and interruptions and to distinguish those different types.
To me these cases seemed also like kinds of interruptions because they prevented the other speaker from continuing and caused him or her to stop talking. Another important thing to consider is whether all of these interruptions end up to be successful.
That means if speaker one starts to talk while speaker two is still speaking, the first one does not necessarily get his way, so speaker two continues talking nevertheless and speaker one has to stop. The chart demonstrates that of the 39 times that Darryl — the blue lines - tries to interrupt Pamela, only 31 end up to be successful. Pamela — in this diagram shown in purple - interrupts Darryl 29 times and gets her way 21 times. Unfortunately, for this conversation we are given only little information about the speakers and the setting.
Because of the way they talk to each other, it seems obvious that they are a couple. The conversation is actually a friendly argument, because Pamela has just read a book about life and death and wants to talk about it, but Darryl is not really interested. Kulturwissenschaften - Sonstiges. Geschichte - Didaktik. Englisch - Landeskunde. BWL - Wirtschaftspolitik. Anglistik - Literatur.
Amerikanistik - Literatur. Registrieren oder einloggen. Optional: Anmelde-Code. For a start, narrative material can be found in non-narrative texts e. Furthermore, it is possible for narrative texts to contain non-narrative elements e. In such cases, the text involved is defined as a narrative by its paratextually marked text type e. That, at least, is the conventional view. The applicability of the above definition can be tested by comparing it with the codified findings of narratology as presented in various introductions to the subject5.
Take, for example, the phenomenon of how time is represented, the study of which is one of the foremost success stories of narrative theory. Prince 4. Richardson In bullet time, on the other hand, it can be accelerated considerably.
The description of the technique should perhaps be completed by adding that bullet time is frequently employed in order to visualize processes e. The effectiveness of bullet time as a technique stems from the fact that the physical nature of the camera, which has influenced every frame since cinema began, is overcome by the use of a virtual camera8.
This technique exploits the indexical connection which traditional film production establishes between cinematic signs and their referents. Because of the symbolic nature of the linguistic sign, it is not possible to create the same effect in the medium of language9. Let us consider a further example, internal focalization. We are all familiar with the definition of internal focalization in the narrative text; it is the situation that occurs when the scope of perception is defined by the position of a character. The spatial and temporal orientation of the narrative is bound to the first-person here and now of a particular character; fo—————————————— 6 7 8 9 Matrix Website Bullet time was made famous by the first part of the Matrix trilogy, and it did not take long for many other films to imitate the technique.
See the Matrix website for a description of the technical challenges posed by bullet time and the relationship between bullet time and the Japanese anime. The camera is a physical object with certain properties which have changed as cinema has developed. At first, it was so heavy and hard to move that tracking shots were unthinkable. Since then it has become very small and relatively easy to manipulate, but it is still a physical object, and a person can hardly move it quickly enough to circle an object several times during a couple of centimetres in the flight of a bullet while producing sharp images throughout.
Not surprisingly, the same effect can be found in animated cartoons. In films, apart from a small number of experimental exceptions, we hardly ever see things through the eyes of a character for any extended length of time. Even when we know only, or little more than, what a character knows, that character is usually seen from outside, with the result that the audience does not perceive the same things as the character but rather a combination of the character and his perceptions.
There is little to be gained by discussing the causes of these differences between the media; for our purposes, it is sufficient simply to identify their existence. Our examples show clearly enough that is hardly feasible for meaningful structural descriptions to be independent of the medium of representation Why, then, is analepsis an exception to this? Because analepsis ultimately depends on a structural prerequisite which is practically the smallest common denominator of all narration: the sequentiality of the representation Effects such as analepsis and prolepsis are created when the represented order deviates from the underlying order of the actions.
The number of such basic phenomena is considerably limited because in most cases, as our examples have shown, additional, mediumspecific factors come into play. It is not even unusual to find critics investigating phenomena which are completely dependent on the medium in question, as is the case with one of the richest subsectors of narratology, the study of how speech and thought are reproduced in narrative texts. If, however, the order of the elements can only be determined on the basis of the internal logic of the action or reference to a previously known story, as in the paintings of the early Renaissance, it is clear that analepsis is not possible.
Some narratologies make it perfectly explicit that they are restricted to the analysis of narrative texts or, in some cases, the even narrower domain of fictional narrative texts. However, they do not normally indicate which of their findings are specific to the chosen medium and which are not; see, for example, Rimmon-Kenan, who has a broad concept of narrativity but a more limited narratology: Rimmon-Kenan 1ff.
Narratology and the Narrative 39 actually been produced by research in the discipline. The vast majority of narratological findings, as presented in the standard introductory texts, are clearly linked to specific media, and it is not uncommon to find that their validity is confined to the most prominent strand of narratology, the analysis of narrative texts13, It is not hard to see why this is so.
All representation takes place in a medium, and the characteristics of each particular medium dictate key properties of any representation that takes place in that medium, with the result that it is simply not possible to discuss representation in abstract terms. Overlooking medium-specific properties in order to derive a more abstract, medium-independent concept of the narrative may well be a useful way of communicating more quickly and concisely, but that does not mean that we should turn the resultant abstraction into our object of study itself, for to do so would mean hypostatizing a non-existent common element Granted, the narratives of every medium share the presence of a story, but the story is not in itself narrative; it is rather a self-contained meaningful structure which we shall consider in more detail below.
The various narratives share certain representational phenomena which follow from highly general properties of discourse and sequentiality. But these shared features are not markers of narrativity. In other words, the concept of narrative is an abstraction which should be used with care because it abstracts away from the very matter that represents the focus of narratological interest in the first place. Chatman was one of the first to analyse the media-related differences comparatively: Chatman , He postulates the existence of narrative frames.
Wolf treats the narrative as a frame which is medium-independent but then uses the prototype of narration, which is medium-dependent, as a means of orientation: Wolf 29, Even so, it turns out that the prototype has no role in his model; instead, he develops the idea of the medium-independent narrative frame, which he uses as the basis for his model of a narratology that crosses the bounds of individual media.
In my view, however, it is precisely this concept of the narrative frame that is theoretically unsatisfactory. The reason is that the phenomena involved can actually be explained perfectly well without the introduction of such a frame. Humans recognize the story and group together everything in which they can identify a story. We shall return to the histoire as a self-contained meaningful structure in the next section.
The concept of prototypical categories should be familiar and can be summarized briefly as follows: prototypical categories are defined by markedly typical exemplars rather than clear boundaries consisting of atomic features. Any of the exemplars in a category can be relatively distant from the typical exemplar without thereby losing its membership of the category.
For example, the robin can be seen as the prototypical bird and the penguin as a class member which, although located at the edge of the category, is still linked to the prototype Taking a prototype of narration as our starting point brings with it two advantages for the construction of our theory. Monika Fludernik and Werner Wolf also describe narrativity by borrowing the concept of the prototype from cognitive science: Fludernik 13ff. As Kayser had done before her, Fludernik takes spontaneous narratives in the context of a conversation as her prototype, while Wolf takes the fairytale i.
Evidence against treating literacy as a prototypical feature can be found in the fact that everyday oral narration is far more widespread than written narration and was also socialized at an earlier date. It is also far from certain that fictionality is a prototypical feature. Moreover, fictional narration can be perfectly well described as a complex form of everyday narration, while the converse is not as plausible.
Rosch ; Kleiber Narratology and the Narrative 41 some phenomenon or other in the real world e. Let us summarize our findings so far. For a long time, the inseparability of medium and representation was widely ignored by narratologists. Today, however, it has become the centre of attention. In the traditional concept of narratology as a theoretical discipline, narratology was typically treated as a metascience, a science whose subject was a narrativity present in a wide range of unrelated media.
At first, this description of the narrative was regularly combined with a corresponding disregard for the role of the medium, but it was also chosen by the mediaaware models of more modern narratology. We have criticized this approach here on the grounds that there is little place for the idea of a universal narrative entity given that all representation is deeply and inherently dependent on its medium; not even the histoire can be treated as a defining feature of narrative. If we choose not to follow the path of hypostatizing the essence of narrativity, we must identify an alternative way of describing our field of study.
This we have found in the prototype model. Our prototype is based on everyday narration; in the following pages, we shall examine the properties of this prototype in more detail and use them to define the field of study of narratology itself. For one thing, the criterion of causality proves to be too weak; for another, almost every story that is narrated displays properties which extend beyond the simple presence of a causal and chronological connection.
Adams has pointed out that it is rare for causality in the sense of an efficient cause to establish a sufficiently strong connection between events; he argues that the resultant gap is filled above all by the intentions of the characters involved. However, only human or human-like figures can have intentions. Carroll Carroll investigates narrative connections because his interest is directed not at narrative texts as such, but rather at the kind of connection that exists in stories which are perceived as being narrative in nature. Cohn Narratology and the Narrative 43 be found e.
We can also increase our understanding of the concept of story by considering the theory of motivation in aesthetic narrative texts. Three kinds of motivation have been identified: 1 causal motivation, which connects events in terms of a meaningful causal structure; 2 final motivation, which is present when the course of events in the narrative world is determined by a concept such as fate or providence; and 3 compositional motivation, which means that the sole motivation behind the facts in the narrative world is their function in the overall intentional framework of the work In general terms, then, motivation can be understood as a meaningful structure which establishes a meaningful connection between a given element of the text, and thus of the narrated world, and other such elements.
To conclude, the story is, as has been emphasized repeatedly, a meaningful structure. It gathers the totality of events, characters, and regions into an organized and meaningful whole The most important components of this meaningful structure are chronology, causality, teleology, and intentionality.
In addition, narratological critics, and indeed authors themselves, have identified and described further types of meaningful structure at many different levels of abstraction In my view, it is particularly important to distinguish the meaningfully structured story from its representation in the discourse.
The narrated story, not simply the story per se, is narration. Stierle ; Schmid Tobias In the prototype, the property of closure is ascribed to the story relative to the time of narration, thus exploiting the non-identity of discourse and story that is stressed in the concept of representation. We shall examine the function of presentation i. Even in the case of fictional texts, Abbott argues, it is assumed that the fictional narrator narrates a story which has already been concluded in the fictional world. The framework of the action in such a game is determined by the game designer, but the actual course of the action unfolds only as it is shaped by the deeds of the players within the constraints of the game world.
If things are happening right now for the first time, do we call it a narrative? Narratology and the Narrative 45 Do we refer to our lives, for example, as narrative? Consequently, Abbott argues that a key criterion of narrative is that the story must exist, or appear to exist, prior to its narration, and stresses that in fictional texts we find no more than the impression of a preexisting story.
However, the reason he suggests for this—the fact that our lives are taking place at this very moment—is a highly questionable explanation. So, plausible as his example may seem, let us first examine the validity of the argument behind it. How is the point in time of narration related to the point in time of what is narrated? Is it possible for something that is happening at this very moment to be narrated? Forms of live reporting, such as radio broadcasts of football matches, illustrate that the events do not need to have come to an end before they can be narrated.
The same is true of fictional narration, as the example of the epistolary novel makes clear. Time moves forward after each letter, and each subsequent letter appears at a point in time that was still part of the future at the time of the preceding letter. The events, therefore, do not need to be completed in order for them to be narrated in the broadest sense of the word But is it not nonetheless conceivably possible that the assumption of chronological separation could still apply to the relationship between an individual event as opposed to the totality of events and its narration?
Does this mean that chronological separation is indeed a constitutive element of narration?
And what kind of history is created as a consequence? We can be reasonably sure that the chronological separation cited by Abbott is one of the phenomena which can be analytically identified in the prototypical concept of narration. In all three languages, English, German, and Russian, an event is a special occurrence, something which is not part of everyday routine. Pooja Gupta. The problem is that comparing the information known to narrator and characters does not, and indeed cannot, take into account the key requirement that underlies all the various techniques of perspective: focalized narration is always characterized by the linkage of narration to a process of perception. Eder, Jens Neverending Stories.
To move to a different medium, what is the situation as far as football matches broadcast on television are concerned? In the case of a live broadcast, the gap between an event and its representation in the medium is only a matter of milliseconds, but even so it is indisputable that the separation is there. The reason for this, however, lies arguably less in the brevity of the chronological sepa—————————————— 29 30 Abbott More accurately, the epistolary novel communicates two states of affairs.
The level of the narrator is home, as outlined above, to the narrative component. At the same time, however, the real reader holds a completed book in his hand. Thus, the epistolary communication that the novel relates has closure at the level of author and reader, as can be made explicit by introducing an editorial figure into the fictional world. To return to the question of the role played by chronological separation in the category of narrative, it is clear that the separation can be anything between a few milliseconds and a much longer delay of arbitrary duration.
In addition, however, it is clear that there are certain text types e. The key point, then, is not so much the delay between the event and the narrative but rather the fact that the two are non-identical because the narrative represents the event in a medium. We can be reasonably sure that the chronological separation cited by Abbott is one of the phenomena which can be analytically identified in the prototypical concept of narration.
The presence of this chronological interval results from the fact that narration takes place in a medium. The chronological distance involved varies depending on the particular composition of the medium concerned and the way in which it is used. It should also be noted that oral narration is a unidirectional medium, while computer games are interactive and thus at least bidirectional.
This means that the constructive contribution made by the player to the development of the eventual course of a game is different in nature from the contribution of a listener or reader to material in other media. In actual fact, MMORPGs do have something in common with our lives: in both cases, it is our actions that bring the story into existence in the first place. While the narrative forms which have developed up to the present point in time do sometimes permit interruptions and other interference, their existence does not depend on such manipulation.
In other words, as exemplified by the prototype of narration, the narrated event sequence is not changed by the narrative. The narrative is theoretically —————————————— 31 The present discussion does not consider the linguistic aspects of such television broadcasts. Narratology and the Narrative 47 independent of the story Interestingly, this is true even of fictional narratives, in which the story and the fictional world do not exist before they are produced by the act of narration.
In certain computer games, however, the event sequence and the actions of the recipient are not independent of one another.
Fokalisierungskonzept von Gérard Genette im Kontext der Erzähltheorie ( German Edition) - Kindle edition by Ievgeniia Bogomolova (Karashchuk). Download it. Fokalisierungskonzept von Gérard Genette im Kontext der Erzähltheorie ( German Edition) [Ievgeniia Bogomolova (Karashchuk)] on ubynasipujag.tk *FREE* .
In the adventure game, which is considered the paradigmatic example of a narrative genre, the player has to solve puzzles whose solution causes the plot to advance, usually in the form of animated sequences The story does not depend on the player, even if many games present the player with a number of alternative courses of action from which he must choose one to pursue. The genre is thus very close to the prototype.
In the MMORPG, on the other hand, the rule system and properties of the fictional world mean that there are numerous factors which condition the actions of the player—but the actual story itself is not predetermined. It is true that the player is sometimes presented with a course of action, but it is entirely up to the player to determine the form in which it is followed, indeed whether it is followed all That is to say, the sequence of actions, the meaningful structure of the story experienced by the player, is largely dependent on the decisions of that player and of the other players.
In terms of their relationship to the prototype of narration, they are, it should now be clear, markedly borderline phenomena. Its place in the critical debate has been superseded by a constructivism whose radicalism varies depending on the extent to which the story is treated as dependent on its representation. Hayden White was once cited repeatedly as a supporter of the more radical form of the theory, but he has since largely withdrawn from his position by replacing the concept of fiction with that of literacy. White Klaus Walter believes that game and narrative in the adventure game are fundamentally separate entities with no more than a structural link between them: Walter ff.
To complete the quests, the player usually has to undertake further journeys and perform a series of tasks. Some players spend most of their time in the game pursuing such quests, while others avoid them completely. This is plausible in so far as, because any nonfictional narrative speech can also be used in a fictional context, the more complex model of fictional narrative communication can be simplified to yield our prototypical communication situation exactly as we described it above.
However, this is due not least to the fact that obvious theoretical differences between the two are completely overlooked because the more complex model quite understandably presupposes the properties of text-based fictional communication. Thus, for example, the stability of everyday oral narratives and the frequency with which they are repeated by different narrators in a social group family, friends , is an important aspect of oral communication which, for obvious reasons, has no role in written communication.
So, even though the standard model of narrative communication must be extended if it is to cover such aspects, we can still draw on it in our description of the communication situation in the prototype. Here we are faced once more with the question of what the important, ultimately even decisive features of the prototype are. In particular, the question of whether every form of narrative must have a narrator—a source behind the utterance, behind the discourse—is not exactly trivial when it comes to defining what narratologists study.
Reviewing contemporary approaches to this question, we find that there is an overwhelming consensus that the narratorial instance should be dispensed with Janik ; original version German. Narratology and the Narrative 49 quirement allows narratology to cover more than just one particular medium. Tying narratology to the criterion of a narrator means that it is restricted to linguistic narration, which is unsatisfactory in so far as it is immediately obvious that there are a number of different forms in which stories can be represented and that the same story can be represented in several different media.
However, the conventional response, which is to define the universal essence of narrativity as the representation of a story, is, in my view, highly inadequate for the reasons outlined above. Here again, I shall argue that reference to the prototype can help clarify the situation. The narrator is the source of the discourse, one of the meaningful structures of a narrative.
He is also partly responsible for another meaningful structure, that of the story. Furthermore, he pursues an objective when he narrates a story. This intentional element both leaves its mark on the first two meaningful structures and creates a dimension of meaning of its own. If we compare this communication situation with that of nonfictional film, we can see that, because the signs in the latter are index signs, the person who manipulates them assembles the discourse in a different, in fact constructive, way.
In other words, someone who tells a story orally is able to draw on a linguistic system and numerous other standardized systems, and the representation of his story is shaped by his selections from all these systems. In the film—the non-fictional film, that is—on the other hand, the director does not produce the images; but he does decide on the focus of the shot, perspective, montage, use of sound, and other aspects, all of which allow the recipient to form inferences about the director.
The differences between the media, therefore, condition different kinds of inference in the process by which meaning is created38, but this does not change the fact that the identification of an intentionally acting designing intelligence is of crucial importance in cinematic communication too. We can conclude that when the representation of events in a medium is not accompanied by such a communicating intelligence e. The ascription of intentionality also lies behind the fact that the story of a narrative is always a narrated story, a communicated sequence of events.
That is the theoretical difference between the story of a narrative and other kinds of event sequence, not only because of the role of the medium but far more because of the constant involvement of communication. One of the well-known central principles in the thought of Paul Grice is that the analysis of communication should take account of the fact that something is being communicated and use this insight as the basis for more far-reaching inferences The same applies to narrative communication irrespective of its medium.
The communicated story is always, irrespective of the particular form in which it is represented, accompanied by an underlying layer of meaningfulness The conclusions which can and should be drawn from this, however, differ from one medium to the other. Let us summarize our findings. A story is not narrative, but the representation of a story is. It should now be clear that a media-independent concept of narrative is nothing more than a marginally useful hypostatized abstraction.
As an alternative, we have proposed that narrative should always be treated as something anchored in a medium. There are, therefore, separate narratologies for linguistic narration, for cinema, for comic strips, and so on. What they all share is the concept of story in the narrated world. We could correspondingly restrict narratology to examining phenomena of the histoire, such as plot structures, character models, and closure. However, such a restriction would be neither useful nor plausible in a field of study whose greatest and most productive achievements to date lie in the insights it has provided into how the histoire is represented The analysis of discourse phenomena is, of course, always and —————————————— 39 40 41 42 An interesting special borderline case would easily occur if someone were to take tapes with such recordings and use them as the object of a work of art.
See the famous William James Lectures: Grice 1— On this, see also Ann Rigney, who has already pointed out the potential benefits of relevance theory for the development of narratological theories: Rigney Genette points out that analyses of the story which separate it from its representation have only rarely described themselves as works of narratology: Genette Narratology and the Narrative 51 inevitably conditioned by the qualities of the particular medium involved. Nonetheless, the constant exchange of data between the various specialized narratologies is commendably productive because of the shared properties of the media and the fact that many media are, in part, actually the product of the integration of other media e.
The histoire is a self-contained meaningful structure whose most important components are chronology, causality, teleology, and intentionality. The story is, relative to the time at which it is represented, closed and independent of its representation. The act of narration itself, irrespective of the structure of meaning in the particular representation involved, communicates a claim to be meaningful. This meaning, like that of the story and its representation, is attributed to an organizing intelligence; in the prototype, that intelligence is the narrator.
The features of the prototype—and the list we have argued for here can only be an incomplete starting point— obviously do not need to be present in all instances of narration. Narratology too, we might say, has its penguins. London: Routledge. Munich: Hanser. Bern: Francke. Matrix Website accessed 8 June Tobias, Ronald B. Wolf, Mark J. Wolf, 94— Austin: University of Texas Press.
Fludernik Herman 27 note 1. Short of resulting in outright paradoxical statements the trademark of such theory-free descriptive reconstruction is therefore often a tentative and somewhat fuzzy terminology. So what is narratology—approach, praxis, project, school, sub-discipline, discipline, science? To present a new taxonomy for an entire field of scholarly endeavour is to take an equally bold and necessary step. However, I do believe that theoretical approaches conceptualising of narratives as readerly constructs cannot ignore epistemological methodology.
Sternberg For more recent overviews on the field cf. Poser , Chalmers Narratology as Discipline: A Case for Conceptual Fundamentalism 59 system have been explored the scientific practice is in theory everperpetuating though in reality of course limited by pragmatic and social constraints. Clearly, more than one such scientific system of practice may investigate an identical class of empirical objects while conceptualising them as different scientific objects, i.
Take for example the corpus of Russian fairy tales studied by Propp which was, however, clearly not the exclusive domain of Formalist study, but also of interest to ethnological research projects. This observation immediately raises the question of how to tell the difference between competing conceptualisations of a particular object domain, and thus the difference between the various disciplines that engage in its study. The fundamental difference lies, according to Guntau and Laitko, in the procedures whereby the scientific object is identified, and in the terminology whereby it is subsequently described.
Both—procedures and terminology—are highly discipline specific. Secondary conceptualisations that render complex models and unique theories of the object domain might be seen as the more obvious manifestations of disciplinary variance. Ideally speaking the integrity of a given discipline is thus the function of a consensus on procedures and terminology shared by those who subscribe to its system of practice. The essence of these rules is to guarantee that in following a given procedure, we will not just elaborate further on the scientific object as a system of properties and relations, but will also be able to relate these observations back to identical empirical objects intersubjectively, and at any point in time.
This is the theoretical core condition of disciplinarity and, at 60 Jan Christoph Meister the same time, the pragmatic precondition for building ever more complex models and theories9. We can now address the question of how to construct a terminology. These descriptions must therefore be traced back to the fundamental level where we assign specific terms to specific phenomenological entities—features, qualities etc.
My translation JCM. The graph tries to show how this particular concept is arrived at by way of abstracting from a specific constellation of textual features, in this case, the juxtaposition of two propositions with a shared argument and opposing predicates see Table 1. However, in terms of the workflow i. And this description gets its light, that is to say its purpose, from the philosophical problems. The phenomenon as such has no inherent problematic, and hence there is nothing to explain and its description will indeed suffice.
Narratology as Discipline: A Case for Conceptual Fundamentalism 63 Table 2: Building of complex concept by explicating a frame of reference For Wittgenstein philosophical problems were rooted in an inadequate use or understanding of language. It is represented by externally motivated questions that are directed 64 Jan Christoph Meister at more than just one singular, idiosyncratic feature occuring in a given narrative, and represented by a singular entry in our terminology.
They are effects whose description necessitates complex terms, if not entire models. We must therefore extend our workflow model accordingly and make it permeable so that conceptual enrichment can take place see Table 2. Narratology as Discipline: A Case for Conceptual Fundamentalism 65 What about the other option: doing away with the constraints of a distinct terminological frame of reference restricted to the generation of fundamental terms, and short-circuiting it with the systematic frame of reference right from the outset?
This is the alternative which I understand to be advocated by some of the more recent attempts at redefining narratology on a whole. But let us not focus on what arguably may constitute an equally bold and extreme case. The problem which I would like to bring to attention here arises much earlier.
This is not to say that there is no need for such a complex concept. But we must now either accept that a fundamental and a complex narratological concept share the same name, as is demonstrated in Table Narratology as Discipline: A Case for Conceptual Fundamentalism 67 Table 3: Conflict between fundamental and complex definition of a concept This is bound to lead to confusion, but could still be remedied by way of a new terminological convention.
Rather more problematic is the second case ref. I must reiterate that these conclusions are based on the presupposition stated at the outset: narratology is, or ought to be conceptualised as, a discipline. Likewise, conceptual amalgamation and recombination in a scientific discipline can only take place at the level of complex concepts and systems. Three: If narratology is indeed a discipline, then there can by definition be one narratology only.