From Axis Victories to the Turn of the Tide: World War II, 1939-1943

From Axis Victories to the Turn of the Tide: World War II, 1939-1943
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absolutelyalex.net/wp-content/189/wusez-como-sacar-citas.php Don't let that scare you away, though. Kennedy has written about what he considers a neglected topic in World War II histories: How middle managers took the That Random House shows no editorial control is unfortunately not news Paul Kennedy. Budge - LibraryThing This is a management book, sort of. How to Win Command of the. How to Stop a Blitzkrieg. How to Seize an EnemyHeld Shore. How to Defeat the Tyranny of Distance. Problem Solving in History. Paul M. The treaty was the result of increasing dependence on German coal following League of Nations sanctions, similar policies between the two countries over the conflict in Spain, and German sympathy towards Italy following European backlash to the Ethiopian War.

The aftermath of the treaty saw the increasing ties between Italy and Germany, and Mussolini falling under Adolf Hitler 's influence from which "he never escaped". These included a free port at Djibouti , control of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad , Italian participation in the management of Suez Canal Company , some form of French-Italian condominium over French Tunisia , and the preservation of Italian culture on Corsica with no French assimilation of the people.

The French refused the demands, believing the true Italian intention was the territorial acquisition of Nice, Corsica, Tunisia, and Djibouti. Beginning in Mussolini often voiced his contention that Italy required uncontested access to the world's oceans and shipping lanes to ensure its national sovereignty. He delivered a long speech on international affairs and the goals of his foreign policy, "which bears comparison with Hitler's notorious disposition, minuted by colonel Hossbach ".

He began by claiming that the freedom of a country is proportional to the strength of its navy. This was followed by "the familiar lament that Italy was a prisoner in the Mediterranean". On 31 March, Mussolini stated that "Italy will not truly be an independent nation so long as she has Corsica, Bizerta , Malta as the bars of her Mediterranean prison and Gibraltar and Suez as the walls. As early as September , the Italian military had drawn up plans to invade Albania. On 7 April, Italian forces landed in the country and within three days had occupied the majority of the country.

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Albania represented a territory Italy could acquire for "'living space' to ease its overpopulation" as well as the foothold needed to launch other expansionist conflicts in the Balkans. The pact was the culmination of German-Italian relations from and was not defensive in nature. Mussolini's Under-Secretary for War Production, Carlo Favagrossa , had estimated that Italy could not possibly be prepared for major military operations until at least October This had been made clear during the Italo-German negotiations for the Pact of Steel, whereby it was stipulated that neither signatory was to make war without the other earlier than The lack of a stronger automotive industry made it difficult for Italy to mechanize its military.

Italy still had a predominantly agricultural-based economy, with demographics more akin to a developing country high illiteracy, poverty, rapid population growth and a high proportion of adolescents and a proportion of GNP derived from industry less than that of Czechoslovakia , Hungary and Sweden , in addition to the other great powers. By comparison, Great Britain produced Approximately one quarter of the ships of Italy's merchant fleet were in foreign ports at the outbreak of hostilities, and, given no forewarning, were immediately impounded.

Between and , Italy had supplied the Spanish "Nationalist" forces, fighting under Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War , with large number of weapons and supplies practically free. The financial cost of the war was between 6 and 8. When Benito Mussolini took office, in , the government debt was 93 billion lire , un-repayable in the short to medium term.

Only two years later this debt had increased to billion lire. In September , Britain imposed a selective blockade of Italy. Coal from Germany, which was shipped out of Rotterdam , was declared contraband. The Germans promised to keep up shipments by train, over the Alps, and Britain offered to supply all of Italy's needs in exchange for Italian armaments. The Italians could not agree to the latter terms without shattering their alliance with Germany.

British intelligence officer, Francis Rodd , believed that Mussolini was convinced to reverse policy by German pressure in the week of 2—8 February, a view shared by the British ambassador in Rome, Percy Loraine. In April Britain began strengthening their Mediterranean Fleet to enforce the blockade. Despite French uncertainty, Britain rejected concessions to Italy so as not to "create an impression of weakness". The Italian Royal Army Regio Esercito was comparatively depleted and weak at the commencement of the war.

Italian tanks were of poor quality and radios few in number. The bulk of Italian artillery dated to World War I. Italian authorities were acutely aware of the need to modernize and were taking steps to meet the requirements of their own relatively advanced tactical principles. The Carro Armato P40 tank, [48] roughly equivalent to the M4 Sherman and Panzer IV medium tanks, was designed in though no prototype was produced until and manufacture was not able to begin before the Armistice, [nb 6] owing in part to the lack of sufficiently powerful engines, which were themselves undergoing a development push; total Italian tank production for the war — about 3, — was less than the number of tanks used by Germany in its invasion of France.

The Italians were pioneers in the use of self-propelled guns, [51] [52] both in close support and anti-tank roles. On paper Italy had one of the world's largest armies, [56] but the reality was the opposite. According to the estimates of Bierman and Smith, the Italian regular army could field only about , troops at the war's beginning. Senior leadership was also a problem. Mussolini personally assumed control of all three individual military service ministries with the intention of influencing detailed planning.

Despite being an Axis power , Italy remained non-belligerent until June Following the German conquest of Poland, Mussolini hesitated to enter the war. The British commander for land forces in the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean , General Sir Archibald Wavell , correctly predicted that Mussolini's pride would ultimately cause him to enter the war. Wavell would compare Mussolini's situation to that of someone at the top of a diving board: "I think he must do something. If he cannot make a graceful dive, he will at least have to jump in somehow; he can hardly put on his dressing-gown and walk down the stairs again.

Initially, the entry into the war appeared to be political opportunism though there was some provocation , [nb 8] which led to a lack of consistency in planning, with principal objectives and enemies being changed with little regard for the consequences. On 10 June , as the French government fled to Bordeaux during the German invasion , declaring Paris an open city , Mussolini felt the conflict would soon end and declared war on Britain and France.

I only need a few thousand dead so that I can sit at the peace conference as a man who has fought. Mussolini had the immediate war aim of expanding the Italian colonies in North Africa by taking land from the British and French colonies.

Roosevelt of the United States said:. On this tenth day of June , the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor. The Italian entry into the war opened up new fronts in North Africa and the Mediterranean. After Italy entered the war, pressure from Nazi Germany led to the internment in the Campagna concentration camp of some of Italy's Jewish refugees. In June , after initial success, the Italian offensive into southern France stalled at the fortified Alpine Line. On 24 June , France surrendered to Germany. Italy occupied a swathe of French territory along the Franco-Italian border.

During this operation, Italian casualties amounted to 1, men dead or missing and 2, wounded. A further 2, Italians were hospitalised due to frostbite. Late in the Battle of Britain , Italy contributed an expeditionary force, the Corpo Aereo Italiano , which took part in the Blitz from October until April , at which time the last elements of the force were withdrawn.

This had the effect of providing a de facto temporary haven for French Jews fleeing the Holocaust. In January the Italians refused to cooperate with the Nazis in rounding up Jews living in the occupied zone of France under their control and in March prevented the Nazis from deporting Jews in their zone. Plans to attack the harbour of New York City with CA class midget submarines in were disrupted when the submarine converted to carry out the attack, the Leonardo da Vinci , was sunk in May The armistice put a stop to further planning.

Mussolini ordered Balbo's replacement, General Rodolfo Graziani , to launch an attack into Egypt immediately. Graziani complained to Mussolini that his forces were not properly equipped for such an operation, and that an attack into Egypt could not possibly succeed; nevertheless, Mussolini ordered him to proceed. At this time, the British had only 36, troops available out of about , under Middle Eastern command to defend Egypt, against , Italian troops.

They were divided between the 5th army in the west and the 10th army in the east and thus spread out from the Tunisian border in western Libya to Sidi Barrani in Egypt. At Sidi Barrani, Graziani, unaware of the British lack of numerical strength, [nb 9] planned to build fortifications and stock them with provisions, ammunition , and fuel , establish a water pipeline, and extend the via Balbia to that location, which was where the road to Alexandria began.

At this stage Italian losses remained minimal, but the efficiency of the British Royal Navy would improve as the war went on. Mussolini was fiercely disappointed with Graziani's sluggishness. However, according to Bauer [74] he had only himself to blame, as he had withheld the trucks, armaments, and supplies that Graziani had deemed necessary for success. Wavell was hoping to see the Italians overextend themselves before his intended counter at Marsa Matruh.

Graziani and his staff lacked faith in the strength of the Italian military. We take too little account of this in building our stone forts We are not fighting the Ethiopians now. Balbo had said "Our light tanks, already old and armed only with machine guns, are completely out-classed.

The machine guns of the British armoured cars pepper them with bullets which easily pierce their armour. Italian forces around Sidi Barrani had severe weaknesses in their deployment. Their five main fortifications were placed too far apart to allow mutual support against an attacking force, and the areas between were weakly patrolled. The absence of motorised transport did not allow for rapid reorganisation, if needed. On 8 December , the British launched Operation Compass. Planned as an extended raid, it resulted in a force of British, Indian, and Australian troops cutting off the Italian 10th Army.

Winston Churchill, however, directed the advance be stopped, initially because of supply problems and because of a new Italian offensive that had gained ground in Albania, and ordered troops dispatched to defend Greece. Weeks later the first troops of the German Afrika Korps started to arrive in North Africa February , along with six Italian divisions including the motorized Trento and armored Ariete.

German General Erwin Rommel now became the principal Axis field commander in North Africa, although the bulk of his forces consisted of Italian troops. Though subordinate to the Italians, under Rommel's direction the Axis troops pushed the British and Commonwealth troops back into Egypt but were unable to complete the task because of the exhaustion and their extended supply lines which were under threat from the Allied enclave at Tobruk , which they failed to capture. After reorganising and re-grouping the Allies launched Operation Crusader in November which resulted in the Axis front line being pushed back once more to El Agheila by the end of the year.

In January the Axis struck back again, advancing to Gazala where the front lines stabilised while both sides raced to build up their strength. At the end of May, Rommel launched the Battle of Gazala where the British armoured divisions were soundly defeated. Rommel made a final attempt to break through during the Battle of Alam el Halfa but Eighth Army , by this time commanded by Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery , held firm. Despite the Axis success at Kasserine, the Allies were able to reorganise with all forces under the unified direction of 18th Army Group commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander and regain the initiative in April.

In addition to the well-known campaigns in the western desert during , the Italians initiated operations in June from their East African colonies of Ethiopia , Italian Somaliland , and Eritrea. As in Egypt, Italian forces roughly 70, Italian soldiers and , native troops outnumbered their British opponents. Italian East Africa , however, was isolated and far from the Italian mainland, leaving the forces there cut off from supply and thus severely limited in the operations they could undertake.

Initial Italian attacks in East Africa took two different directions, one into the Sudan and the other into Kenya. Then, in August , the Italians advanced into British Somaliland. After suffering and inflicting few casualties, the British and Commonwealth garrison evacuated Somaliland, retreating by sea to Aden. In the Sudan and Kenya, Italy captured small territories around several border villages, after which the Italian Royal Army in East Africa adopted a defensive posture in preparation for expected British counterattacks.

The " Red Sea Flotilla ", consisting of seven destroyers and eight submarines , was based at the port of Massawa in Eritrea. Despite a severe shortage of fuel, the flotilla posed a threat to British convoys traversing the Red Sea. However, Italian attempts to attack British convoys resulted in the loss of four submarines and one destroyer.

On 19 January , the expected British counter-attack arrived in the shape of the Indian 4th and Indian 5th Infantry Divisions, which made a thrust from the Sudan. Finally, the British launched an amphibious assault from Aden to re-take British Somaliland. In early April, after Keren fell, Asmara and Massawa followed. The Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa also fell in April He received full military honours.

When the port of Massawa fell to the British, the remaining destroyers were ordered on final missions in the Red Sea, some of them achieving small successes before being scuttled or sunk. At the same time, the last four submarines made an epic voyage around the Cape of Good Hope to Bordeaux in France.

Some Italians, after their defeat, waged a guerilla war mainly in Eritrea and Ethiopia, that lasted until fall Notable among them was Amedeo Guillet. In early , while the world was focused on Adolf Hitler 's aggression against Czechoslovakia , Mussolini looked to the Kingdom of Albania, across the Adriatic Sea from Italy.

Italian forces invaded Albania on 7 April and swiftly took control of the small country. Even before the invasion, Albania had been politically dominated by Italy; after the invasion it was formally made part of Italy and the Italian king took the Albanian crown. Along with the intervention in the Spanish Civil War and the invasion of Abyssinia, the invasion of Albania was part of the Italian contribution to the disintegration of the collective security the League of Nations instituted after World War I. As such, it was part of the prelude to World War II.

In part, the Italians attacked Greece because of the growing influence of Germany in the Balkans. Both Yugoslavia and Greece had governments friendly to Germany.

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From Axis Victories to the Turn of the Tide is a history of the critical campaigns of World War II that highlights the “visible” turning point battles of the war in From Axis Victories to the Turn of the Tide is a history of the critical campaigns of World War II and highlights the "visible" turning point battles of the war in

Mussolini launched the invasion of Greece in haste after the Kingdom of Romania , a state which he perceived as lying within the Italian sphere of influence, allied itself with Germany. The order to invade Greece was given by Mussolini to Badoglio and Army Chief of Staff Mario Roatta on 15 October, with the expectation that the attack would commence within 12 days. Badoglio and Roatta were appalled given that, acting on his orders, they had demobilised , men three weeks prior. The initial Italian offensive was quickly contained, and the invasion soon ended in an embarrassing stalemate. Taking advantage of Bulgaria 's decision to remain neutral, the Greek Commander-in-Chief, Lt Gen Alexandros Papagos , was able to establish numerical superiority by mid-November, [nb 10] prior to launching a counter-offensive that drove the Italians back into Albania.

In addition, the Greeks were naturally adept at operating in mountainous terrain, while only six of the Italian Army's divisions, the Alpini , were trained and equipped for mountain warfare. Only when the Italians were able to establish numerical parity was the Greek offensive stopped. By then they had been able to penetrate deep into Albania.

An Italian "Spring Offensive" in March , which tried to salvage the situation prior to German intervention, amounted to little in terms of territorial gains. At this point, combat casualties amounted to over , for the Italians with 13, dead and 3, missing and fifty thousand sick; the Greek suffered over 90, combat casualties including 14, killed and 5, missing and an unknown number of sick.

They were short on every area of equipment despite heavy infusion of British aid in February and March, with the army as a whole having only 1 month of artillery ammunition left by the start of April and insufficient arms and equipment to mobilize its reserves. After British troops arrived in Greece in March , British bombers operating from Greek bases could reach the Romanian oil fields, vital to the German war effort.

Hitler decided that a British presence in Greece presented a threat to Germany's rear and committed German troops to invade Greece via Yugoslavia where a coup had deposed the German-friendly government. The Germans invaded on April 6 , smashing through the skeleton garrisons opposing them with little resistance while the Italians continued a slow advance in Albania and Epirus as the Greeks withdrew, with the country falling to the Axis by the end of the month.

The Italian Army was still pinned down in Albania by the Greeks when the Germans began their invasion. Crucially, the bulk of the Greek Army fifteen divisions out of twenty-one was left facing the Italians in Albania and Epirus when the Germans intervened. Hitler commented that the Italians "had so weakened [Greece] that its collapse had already become inevitable", and credited them with having "engaged the greater part of the Greek Army.

Together with the rapid advance of the German forces the Italians attacked Yugoslavia in Dalmatia and pushed the Greeks finally out of Albania. On 17 April, Yugoslavia surrendered to the Germans and the Italians. The invasions ended with a complete Axis victory in May when Crete fell. On 3 May, during the triumphal parade in Athens to celebrate the Axis victory, Mussolini started to boast of an Italian Mare Nostrum in the Mediterranean sea. Some 28 Italian divisions participated in the Balkan invasions. The Italians assumed control of most of Greece with their 11th Army , while the Bulgarians occupied the northern provinces and the Germans the strategically most important areas.

Italian troops would occupy parts of Greece and Yugoslavia until the Italian armistice with the Allies in September In spring , Italy created a Montenegrin client state and annexed most of the Dalmatian coast as the Governorship of Dalmatia Governatorato di Dalmazia. A complicated four-way conflict between the puppet Montenegro regime, Montenegrin nationalists, Royalist remnants of the Yugoslav government, and Communist Partisans continued from — In the Italian military commander in Croatia refused to hand over Jews in his zone to the Nazis.

After some initial setbacks, the Italian Navy declined to engage in a confrontation of capital ships. Since the British Navy had as a principal task the supply and protection of convoys supplying Britain's outposts in the Mediterranean, the mere continued existence of the Italian fleet the so-called " fleet in being " concept caused problems to Britain, which had to utilise warships sorely needed elsewhere to protect Mediterranean convoys.

On 11 November, Britain launched the first carrier strike of the war, using a squadron of Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers. This raid at Taranto left three Italian battleships crippled or destroyed for the loss of two British aircraft shot down.

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The Italian navy found other ways to attack the British. The most successful involved the use of frogmen and riding manned torpedoes to attack ships in harbour. Following the attacks on these two battleships, an Italian-dominated Mediterranean Sea appeared much more possible to achieve.

However, this was only a brief happy time for Mussolini. The oil and supplies brought to Malta, despite heavy losses, by Operation Pedestal in August and the Allied landings in North Africa, Operation Torch , in November , turned the fortunes of war against Italy.

The Axis forces were ejected from Libya and Tunisia in six months after the Battle of El Alamein , while their supply lines were harassed day after day by the growing and overwhelming aerial and naval supremacy of the Allies. By the summer of the Allies were poised for an invasion of the Italian homeland. From August to February , the 8th Army took part in the Battle of Stalingrad and suffered many losses some 20, dead and 64, captured when the Soviets isolated the German forces in Stalingrad by attacking the over-stretched Hungarian, Romanian and Italian forces protecting the German's flanks.

By the summer of , Rome had withdrawn the remnants of the 8th Army to Italy. German generals again took the lead in the defence and, although they lost the island after weeks of bitter fights, they succeeded in ferrying large numbers of German and Italian forces safely off Sicily to the Italian mainland. On 19 July, an Allied air raid on Rome destroyed both military and collateral civil installations. With these two events, popular support for the war diminished in Italy.

The next day Mussolini met with the King, was dismissed as prime minister, and was then imprisoned. Although they publicly declared that they would keep fighting alongside the Germans, the new Italian government began secret negotiations with the Allies to come over to the Allied side. The armistice was publicly announced on 8 September. By then, the Allies were on the Italian mainland. The Italian surrender meant that the Allied landings at Taranto took place unopposed, with the troops simply disembarking from warships at the docks rather than assaulting the coastline.

Because of the time it took for the new Italian government to negotiate the armistice, the Germans had time to reinforce their presence in Italy and prepare for their defection.

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In the first weeks of August they increased the number of divisions in Italy from two to seven and took control of vital infrastructure. This included Italian-occupied southeastern France and the Italian-controlled areas in the Balkans. Only in Sardinia , Corsica , and in part of Apulia and Calabria were Italian troops able to hold their positions until the arrival of Allied forces.

In the area of Rome , only one infantry division—the Granatieri di Sardegna —and some small armoured units fought with commitment, but by 11 September they were overwhelmed by superior German forces. General Caroni, who was tasked with defending Rome, was given duplicitous orders to have his troops abandon Rome something he did not want to do , and essentially to provide rear guard protection to the King and his entourage so they could flee to the Abruzzi hills, and later out to sea. They later landed at Brindisi.

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The second aim is to take control over the nonmilitary sources of assistance available to the enemy. Of these, around 50, died while imprisoned or while under transportation. The Italian surrender meant that the Allied landings at Taranto took place unopposed, with the troops simply disembarking from warships at the docks rather than assaulting the coastline. Kenneth Macksey. In November , his destroyer HMCS Restigouche, along with 5 corvettes , was escorting a convoy of 42 merchant vessels when they were surrounded by at least 16 U—boats. During that year, the forces of Germany and Italy were subdued in North Africa, and the latter surrendered to the Allied forces as they began invading Italy.

Most importantly, Badoglio never gave the order "OP 44" for the Italian people to rise up against the Germans until he knew it was too late to do any good; that is, he belatedly issued the order on 11 September. However, from the day of the announcement of the Armistice, when Italian citizens, military personnel and military units decided to rise up and resist on their own, they were sometimes quite effective against the Germans.

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On the Greek island of Cephallonia , General Antonio Gandin, commander of the 12,strong Italian Acqui Division , decided to resist the German attempt to forcibly disarm his force. The battle raged from 13—22 September, when the Italians were forced to surrender after suffering some 1, casualties. The ensuing massacre of several thousand Italian prisoners of war by the Germans stands as one of the worst single war crimes committed by the Wehrmacht.

Italian troops captured by the Germans were given a choice to keep fighting with the Germans. About 94, Italians accepted and the remaining , were designated Italian military internees and were transported as forced labour to Germany. Some Italian troops that evaded German capture in the Balkans joined the Yugoslav about 40, soldiers and Greek Resistance about 20, After the German invasion, deportations of Italian Jews to Nazi death camps began.

However, by the time the German advance reached the Campagna concentration camp, all the inmates had already fled to the mountains with the help of the local inhabitants. Aldo Brunacci of Assisi , under the direction of his bishop, Giuseppe Nicolini , saved all the Jews who sought refuge in Assisi. In October Nazis raided the Jewish ghetto in Rome. It is estimated that 7, Italian Jews became victims of the Holocaust. About two months after Benito Mussolini was stripped of power, he was rescued by the Germans in Operation Eiche "Oak". The Allied armies continued to advance through Italy despite increasing opposition from the Germans.

The Allies soon controlled most of southern Italy, and Naples rose against and ejected the occupying German forces. The Allies organized some Italian troops in the south into what were known as "co-belligerent" or "royalist" forces. These Italian forces fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war. From this point on, a large Italian resistance movement located in northern Italy fought a guerilla war against the German and RSI forces. Winston Churchill had long regarded southern Europe as the military weak spot of the continent in World War I he had advocated the Dardanelles campaign , and during World War II he favoured the Balkans as an area of operations, for example in Greece in But Italy itself proved anything but a soft target: the mountainous terrain gave Axis forces excellent defensive positions, and it also partly negated the Allied advantage in motorized and mechanized units.

Mussolini was captured and killed on 28 April by the Italian resistance while attempting to flee. Japan reacted with shock and outrage to the news of the surrender of Italy to the Allied forces in September Italian citizens residing in Japan and in Manchukuo were swiftly rounded up and summarily asked whether they were loyal to the King of Savoy, who dishonoured their country by surrendering to the enemy, or with the Duce and the newly created Repubblica Sociale Italiana , which vowed to continue fighting alongside the Germans.

Those who sided with the King were interned in concentration camps and detained in dismal conditions until the end of the war, while those who opted for the Fascist dictator were allowed to go on with their lives, although under strict surveillance by the Kempeitai. The Italian concession of Tientsin was occupied by Japanese troops after resistance from its garrison.

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The news of Italy's surrender did not reach the crew members of the three Italian submarines Giuliani , Cappellini and Torelli travelling to Singapore , then occupied by Japan, to take a load of rubber, tin and strategic materials bound for Italy and Germany's war industry.

All the officers and sailors on board were arrested by the Japanese army, and after a few weeks of detention the vast majority of them chose to side with Japan and Germany. The Kriegsmarine assigned new officers to the three units, who were renamed as U-boat U. Alberto Tarchiani , an anti-fascist journalist and activist, was appointed as Ambassador to Washington by the cabinet of Badoglio, which acted as provisional head of the Italian government pending the occupation of the country by the Allied forces. On his suggestion, Italy issued a formal declaration of war on Japan on 14 July Italy and Japan negotiated the resumption of their respective diplomatic ties after , and later signed several bilateral agreements and treaties.

Nearly four million Italians served in the Italian Army during the Second World War and nearly half a million Italians including civilians lost their lives between June and May The official Italian government accounting of World War II —45 losses listed the following data:. Prisoner-of-war losses are included with military losses mentioned above.

Updated studies by the Ufficio dell'Albo d'Oro of the Italian Ministry of Defence have however revised the military deaths to , Civilian losses were , , post armistice including 61, 42, post armistice in air attacks. Civilian losses as a result of the fighting in Italian Libya were estimated by an independent Russian journalist to be 10, The genocide of Roma people was 1, persons. After the armistice with the Allies, some , members of the Italian armed forces who refused to side with the occupying Germans were interned in concentration and labour camps.

Of these, around 50, died while imprisoned or while under transportation. The Treaty of Peace with Italy, spelled the end of the Italian colonial empire , along with other border revisions. Unlike in Germany and Japan, no war crimes tribunals were held against Italian military and political leaders, though the Italian resistance summarily executed some of them such as Mussolini at the end of the war. Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on April 28,